A region of southern Italy, made mostly of mountains (47%) and hills (45%). The only plains are located in the east, in the short coasts on the Mar Ionio.
The region of Basilicata is one of the less populated regions of Italy, for its dry and mountainous territory hasn't favored human settlement. In fact, it is for this reason that many people have fled the region.
There has been an intense emigration between the 1800 and the 1900, giving birth to the expression "There are more Lucani in the world than in their own country".
In this territory, where erosion has dug many caves, a wonderful scenario has come to life, with wide horizons where its inhabitants have dug their own homes in the rocks from the VII to the XIII century. Today, in Matera, we can admire the famous “Sassi”, trogloditic quarters that sort of represent an architectural miracle.
The actual region corresponds roughly to the ancient Lucania: a territory between the Sele, the Bradano and the Lao. Initially inhabited by the Enotri, it has been colonized by the Greeks in the VIII century B.C and only in the V century B.C the bellicose Lucani, who gave the name to the entire zone, settled in the zone created a strong region which clashed with its neighbors, winning the Lega degli italioti di Sibarim in the 390-389 B.C.
After having fought for a long time with Taranto, un 298 the Lucani allied with Rome until the descent of Pyrrus and Hannibal until they betrayed it. Augustus then unified the region to Brutium, today's Calabria.
Later on, it was called Basilicata, from the greek basilikos, which means "governor and prince".
The term "Lucania" was abandoned, only to be picked up again during the Fascist reign.
A city worth visiting is Melfi, in whose castle Pope Nicolò II invested Roberto il Guiscardo in 1059, allowing the Norman present in the south. Another interesting locality is Venosa, one of the most important Roman colonies, where the latin poet Horatio was born, where only a few ruins and an amphitheater remain, along with the Abbazzia della Trinità of the V-VI century.
Not to be missed is the Greek Metaponto, founded in the VII century B.C, center of a rich city-state, of which we can see the Tavole Palatine and the important Doric temple of Apollo Lycius of the VI century B.C.
On the only and pictoresque bit of coast of the region is the port of Maratea, dominated by the top of the Monte Biagio, on top of which is an enormous statue of the Redeemer, where you can enjoy a breath-taking panorama.